|All About||Education||Cells||Elements||Patient Earth||Search||Countries|
Our Earth - - Save Earth
Why Earth has water
About us - Contact
Earth is changing
Education is Powerful
Atom and its structure
The importance of Atoms
Our universe is full of atoms and full of neutrinos.|
Over 2000 years ago, people from India and Greece came up with the idea that matter is made up of tiny particles. Greek philosophers used the word atom atomos = indivisible for these not visible pieces.
The British Nobel prize winner, Ernest Rutherford, 1871 - 1937, was born in New Zealand. He theorized that atoms have their charge concentrated in a very small nucleus. Because of Rutherford's discovery, scientists found out about the special structure of the atom made up of far smaller subatomic particles. Atoms have a positively charged nucleus with an exact atomic number of charges in the center.
X-rays were used to count the number of electrons giving the different atoms atomic numbers. When you look at the graphic of the Hydrogen atom below, you see why it has the atomic number 1
Every atom we know off has this kind of structure.
Atoms are constructed of two types of elementary particles:
Electrons occupy a space that surrounds an atom's nucleus.
Each electron has an electrical charge of -1.
Each proton has an electrical charge of +1
Each neutron has an electrical charge of 0
Quarks make up protons and neutrons, which, in turn, make up an atom's nucleus.
Hydrogen atoms we find most, followed by Helium, Oxygen, Carbon, Neon, Iron, Nitrogen, Silicon, Magnesium, Sulfur, ... just to name a few.
Hydrogen is with over 90% the most abundant element in our universe.
Hydrogen is essential for life.
Structure of Hydrogen atom
Atomic systems want to be stable, so they try to have only completely filled shells. For a hydrogen atom to become more stable, it has to take up an electron to have a full shell. Another possibility is to give off an electron, so there is no longer an electron shell.
Think about this urge of atoms to have their shells filled to be satisfied: it is the basics of our existence!
Now look at this atom structure
The graphics we show should give an understanding, how nucleus and electrons determine an atom.
BUT electrons and protons are NO particles, they are waves. You cannot predict exactly were they are in the moment, our view would be looking at a cloud surrounding the nucleus.
Helium is essential for life.
Oxygen on Earth is mainly found with Hydrogen, in Earth's atmosphere, and in most life forms.
Neon is colourless and odourless. A gas that will
not react with any other substance.
Nitrogen is a colourless, odourless gas.
It is important to the chemical industry,
producing fertilisers, nitric acid, nylon, dyes and explosives.
Just a reminder: The dots on these circles do not exist, electrons are waves, moving around the nucleus, building a kind of cloud!
Pure Silicon is hard and brittle, crystalline solid
with a blue-grey metallic sheen.
Magnesium is a silvery-white metal that ignites easily in air and burns with a bright light
Sulfur normally appears as yellow crystals or powder.
There are several different physical forms of sulfur.
Without atoms there would be no beginning of life!!
About hundred years ago, scientists achieved their goal to split the atom.
Long before it was thought and taught, that a atom is the smallest piece possible.|
About half a century ago, some scientist started to think and look about smaller particles, smaller than protons, neutrons and electrons.
They found out that there are quarks, much smaller than everything imagined before.
Quarks are the fundamental constituent of the matter inside all the atoms of the universe.
There are six varieties of quarks:
up, down, charm, top, strange, bottom.
Quarks have a mass, an electric charge, and different colors.
Their mass tells how heavy quarks would be if one could weigh them.
Quarks have a positive (+) or a negative (−) electric charge. Up, charm, and top quarks have a positive 2/3 charge.
Down, strange, and bottom quarks have a negative 1/3 charge.
That is the reason protons are positive because of two ups and one down quark, giving a net positive charge.
The 'strong force' moves quarks closer to each other, giving them different colors, a blue, green, or red; there has to be one quark of each color inside a proton or neutron.
The up and down quarks are lighter than the other varieties.
When three quarks combine the result is a hadron, which, when stable, scientists call proton or neutron.
To form a four-quark hadron, the colors would need to be compatible in addition to everything else, and even then it could still be unstable. The charm, top, strange and bottom varieties can form different kind of three quark groups in various combinations.
The question for many scientists was if it would be possible, that a stable combination of four can exist. Four would be called a tetra-quark, but no-one could find prove of their existence.
In Switzerland many scientists work at CERN, and there, researchers think they can prove that a stable tetra-quark exists.
Theoretical physicists calculated the outcome of different quark combinations and found one that theoretically could remain stable:
doubly charmed baryon and double-bottom baryon.
To get more and better results, they moved their research to CERN.
On 28 June, 2016, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of three new "exotic" particles and the confirmation of the existence of a fourth one in data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Each of these particles seems to be formed by four quarks.
During the summer of 2017 the first doubly charmed baryons were detected. A mason is a subatomic particle that is intermediate in mass between an electron and a proton and transmits the strong interaction that binds nucleons together in the atomic nucleus, and exists only for fractions of a second. The J/ψ meson and its excited states, also referred to as charmonium, are formed by a charm quark and its antimatter correspondent, a charm antiquark, bound together by the strong nuclear force. Just like ordinary atoms, a meson can be observed in excited states where the two quarks move around each other in different configurations, and because of Einstein's famous equivalence of energy and mass, after a tiny amount of time they can disappear and transform into some other particles of lower masses.
Now, the way to create a stable tetraquark is open to explore. The next years will show...
Without all these atoms|
life on Earth, as we know it, would not exist, nothing what we imagine would exist.
We would not exist.
Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation has a great mission:|
Information + Education for all who are interested in knowledge.
Marianne Bonenberger director of education
Peter Bonenberger president
We are an international charitable nonprofit-Organization 501(c)(3)
We offer Conservation education online!
Think about and see how wonderful our Earth was created..
Learn to understand = having a better life!
Earth facts + numbers
Countries on Earth
Continents on Earth
Maps of Earth
Map of Australia
Solar system Earth
Keep Earth clean
Why Keep Earth?
Why Keep Earth?
Info about NASA
Earth from Space
Information on Earth:|
- Why is Earth called the blue planet?
- Why Earth has continents?
- Why Earth has earthquakes?
- Earth, the only home for Humans?
- Earth's solar system is special
- Why is Earth sick?
- Earth climate is changing
- Earth uncountable species
- Astonishing photos from Earth
Better in-depth knowledge helps us preserve |
and not to destroy Earth - as we know it -
A good environmental education helps us to understand Nature
and to deal with coming changes + challenges.
Contact us - learn to understand!
|preserves Lectures Help|
Conservation Education (CE) is the combination of two words that have become one word to educators.|
CE is the ability to give people opportunities to grow in knowledge and create changes to their life style and their environment,to have a better life, to have a safer future!
Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation
nonprofit NGO 501(c)(3)
BSBNCG POB 63295 Pipe Creek 78063 TX USA
Peter Bonenberger president
Our Earth - - Why is Earth sick? - - Our Future??
Graphics of Earth's solar system - Earth's Atmosphere - Atoms
The Gulf stream
Quiz Earth Oceans - - Nature Quotes - - Bacteria uncountable numbers
Hear and feel the wonders of Earth
Keep Earth Beautiful
Our volunteers try to be as accurate as possible, but we are not responsible for broken or false links or misinterpretation
We don't collect information from you.
Bear Springs Blossom was founded 2002
|Fair Use Notice|
All material on over 1000 secure Bear Springs Blossom web-pages is intended to advance understanding of the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of Nature conservation. We believe this constitutes a "fair use" of any copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed an interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from our websites for purposes of your own that go beyond "fair use," you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If you are the owner of copyrighted material(s) appearing on this site, and wish it to be removed, please contact us directly.