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Logo of Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation, international charitable nonprofit organization providing nature conservation education to all countries on Earth. BSB provides information, offers conservation education, providing educational web-pages, to see the big picture, to have a better life. Biology, chemistry, Physics knowledge is needed to understand. Biology provides the understanding how life works on Earth, and what is good for us humans, and what can harm us and our children and grandchildren. Atoms are the basis of our existence wants to Signature of Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation, international charitable nonprofit organization with the motto Keep Earth beautiful, offering conservation education worldwide. BSB stands for worldwide education, for providing people with updated knowledge, facts. Learn to understand Earth's environment: affordable education is offered by our education portal, where we explain: What is education, and why is an updated education very important for a safe life. We explain nature, give nature quotes, offer educational advice on the question: What is nature, how to keep beautiful nature, and why the balance of nature is so important! International nature education is the task of BSB to provide environmental education. Conservation trough education is important. Continuing education is very important to have a better life, the basis of understanding life

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Atom and its structure

The importance of Atoms

Our universe is full of atoms.
Over 2000 years ago, people from India and Greece came up with the idea that matter is made up of tiny particles. Greek philosophers used the word atom átomos = indivisible for these not visible pieces.
The British Nobel prize winner, Ernest Rutherford, 1871 – 1937, was born in New Zealand. He theorized that atoms have their charge concentrated in a very small nucleus. Because of Rutherford's discovery, scientists found out about the special structure of the atom made up of far smaller subatomic particles. Atoms have a positively charged nucleus with an exact atomic number of charges in the center.
X-rays were used to count the number of electrons giving the different atoms atomic numbers. When you looking at the graphic of the Hydrogen atom below, you see why it has the atomic number 1
A Atom and its structure

Every atom we know off has this kind of structure.

Atoms are constructed of two types of elementary particles:
A) electrons
B) quarks
Electrons occupy a space that surrounds an atom's nucleus.
Each electron has an electrical charge of -1.
Each proton has an electrical charge of +1
Each neutron has an electrical charge of 0
Quarks make up protons and neutrons, which, in turn, make up an atom's nucleus.

Hydrogen atoms we find most, followed by Helium, Oxygen, Carbon, Neon, Iron, Nitrogen, Silicon, Magnesium, Sulfur, ...just to name a few.
Hydrogen is with over 90% the most abundant element in our universe.
Hydrogen is essential for life.
hydrogen is the most common atom in the universe
Structure of Hydrogen atom

Atomic systems want to be stable, so they try to have only completely filled shells. For a hydrogen atom to become more stable, it has to take up an electron to have a full shell. Another possibility is to give off an electron, so there is no longer an electron shell.

Think about this urge of atoms to have their shells filled to be satisfied: it is the basics of our existence!

Now look at this atom structure
helium is the second most common atom in the universe
Helium is essential for life.
oxygen atoms are number three common atoms in our universe
Oxygen
on Earth is mainly found with Hydrogen, in Earth's atmosphere, and in most life forms.

neon is one of the important atoms in the universe
Neon is colourless and odourless. A gas that will
not react with any other substance.
iron is an important atom in the universe
nitrogen is one of the important atoms in the universe
Nitrogen
is a colourless, odourless gas.
It is important to the chemical industry,
producing fertilisers, nitric acid, nylon, dyes and explosives.

silicon is one of the important atoms in the universe
Pure Silicon is hard and brittle, crystalline solid
with a blue-grey metallic sheen.

magnesium is one of the important atoms in the universe
Magnesium is a silvery-white metal that ignites easily in air and burns with a bright light

sulfur is number 10 of the important atoms in the universe
Sulfur normally appears as yellow crystals or powder.
There are several different physical forms of sulfur.


Without atoms there would be no beginning of life!!
About hundred years ago, scientists achieved their goal to split the atom. Long before it was thought and taught, that a atom is the smallest piece possible.

About half a century ago, some scientist started to think and look about smaller particles, smaller than protons, neutrons and electrons.
They found out that there are quarks, much smaller than everything imagined before.
Quarks are the fundamental constituent of the matter inside all the atoms of the universe.
There are six varieties of quarks:
up, down, charm, top, strange, bottom.
Quarks have a mass, an electric charge, and different colors.
Their mass tells how heavy quarks would be if one could weigh them.
Quarks have a positive (+) or a negative (−) electric charge. Up, charm, and top quarks have a positive 2/3 charge.
Down, strange, and bottom quarks have a negative 1/3 charge.
That is the reason protons are positive because of two ups and one down quark, giving a net positive charge.
The 'strong force' moves quarks closer to each other, giving them different colors, a blue, green, or red; there has to be one quark of each color inside a proton or neutron.
The up and down quarks are lighter than the other varieties.
When three quarks combine the result is a hadron, which, when stable, scientists call proton or neutron.
To form a four-quark hadron, the colors would need to be compatible in addition to everything else, and even then it could still be unstable. The charm, top, strange and bottom varieties can form different kind of three quark groups in various combinations.
The question for many scientists was if it would be possible, that a stable combination of four can exist. Four would be called a tetra-quark, but no-one could find prove of their existence.

In Switzerland many scientists work at CERN, and there, researchers think they can prove that a stable tetra-quark exists.
Theoretical physicists calculated the outcome of different quark combinations and found one that theoretically could remain stable:
doubly charmed baryon and double-bottom baryon.
To get more and better results, they moved their research to CERN.
On 28 June, 2016, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of three new "exotic" particles and the confirmation of the existence of a fourth one in data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Each of these particles seems to be formed by four quarks.
During the summer of 2017 the first doubly charmed baryons were detected. A mason is a subatomic particle that is intermediate in mass between an electron and a proton and transmits the strong interaction that binds nucleons together in the atomic nucleus, and exists only for fractions of a second. The J/ψ meson and its excited states, also referred to as charmonium, are formed by a charm quark and its antimatter correspondent, a charm antiquark, bound together by the strong nuclear force. Just like ordinary atoms, a meson can be observed in excited states where the two quarks move around each other in different configurations, and because of Einstein’s famous equivalence of energy and mass, after a tiny amount of time they can disappear and transform into some other particles of lower masses.
Now, the way to create a stable tetraquark is open to explore. The next years will show...


Without all these atoms
life on Earth, as we know it, would not exist, nothing what we imagine would exist.
We would not exist.

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Peter Bonenberger + Marianne Bonenberger provide fun-filled multimedia lectures about earth's natural environment BSB Science conservation education guest lectures presented by Bear Springs Blossom Master Conservationist: Updated nature education + environmental studies: A Master Conservationist studies life on Earth in biology, physics, chemistry to understand what happens in nature, understands water issues, knows nature conservation, water education about water pollution, knows how to change climate change, how the human body, the blood circle works, what greenhouses gases do to nature. BSB members take responsibility. BSB Master conservationists: Education with certificate learning how to put ratio over emotion to solve problems like changing climate, greenhouse gases, deforestation, air pollution, water contamination, water conservation, soil erosion, urban sprawl, population growth, depletion of natural resources. BSB Master Conservationists give help, give presentations to all audiences, advice on environmental issues. Becoming a master conservationist gives knowledge to be a land conservationist, Nature conservationist, environmentalist, protecting creation Educators Peter and Marianne Bonenberger, volunteers, guest lecturers, presenters of Nature related topics giving a lecture. Environmental education for children + adults
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